Every month, new developments in the field of induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells are published in the literature. Reprogramming adult human cells without the use of agents that could cause cancer is the first hurdle. To introduce the reprogramming gene into cells, the first method of reprogramming used a virus delivery system. A virus can insert itself into a cell's DNA, potentially causing cancer.
It is also necessary to refine the reprogramming parameters. The original group consisted of the Oct-4, c–Myc, Sox2, Klf4, and Sox2 genes. C-Myc is a powerful oncogene – c-Myc expression that can cause cancerous cells to develop. c-Myc was first discovered in the late 1970s.
It plays a major role in breast cancer development and is involved in many types of human malignancies. These cells could be safely used in humans if there were reprogramming options to c-Myc. The best scenario is to find alternatives to any given gene that can be used for reprogramming. This is why a complete regenerative product line was introduced.
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Injecting new genes into cells could cause mutations and disrupt other genetic processes. As cells and tissues continue to multiply and reproduce, these deleterious effects will increase in severity and number. This field is rapidly moving forward. Many researchers have successfully investigated the potential use of small molecules to reprogramme genes.
The smallest molecules are those with very short nucleotide segments, peptides, and short-chain sugars. This innovative work offers a new way to create safer cells that can be used in transplantation and treatment. Initial research is underway to develop iPS cells for treatment of serious and potentially life-threatening conditions. Prior work was done on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and sickle cell anemia.